Stewart, N., Chater, N., Stott, H. P., & Reimers, S. (2003). Prospect relativity: How choice options influence decision under risk. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 132, 23-46.

In many theories of decision under risk (e.g., expected utility theory, rank dependent utility theory, and prospect theory) the utility or value of a prospect is independent of other prospects or options in the choice set. The experiments presented here show a large effect of the available options set, suggesting instead that prospects are valued relative to one another. The judged certainty equivalent is strongly influenced by the options available. Similarly, the selection of a preferred option from a set of prospects is strongly influenced by the prospects available. Alternative theories of decision under risk (e.g., the stochastic difference model, multialternative decision field theory, and range frequency theory), where prospects themselves or prospect attributes are valued relative to one another, can provide an account of these context effects.

Back